Driving to work yesterday morning, my cell phone rang. It showed an unfamiliar area code, which means I normally let it go to voicemail. But something told me to answer, so I pulled off the road and took the call.
“Is this Kingsbury Harriers?” the caller asked. “Yes”, I replied, “how can I help you?”
His name was Justin and he was a shelter worker at a New Mexico pound. He said he’d just come in to work, saw a new stray in the facility, grabbed a scanner and bingo, the neutered tricolor hound boy was chipped. A call to the chip manufacturer yielded my kennel name and phone number.
Living in California, with all of my own hounds safely accounted for at home, this meant it could only be one of my pet puppies that I’d sold.
I took down the pound’s phone number and the chip number, and assured Justin that as soon as I got home, I would track down the chip and get back to him right away. And that regardless, someone would be claiming him, period! He said that he’d put a “hold” on the boy to be sure nothing bad happened to him.
All day long at work, I puzzled over the riddle…. who could this boy be?? The clock seemed to stop and actually go backwards as I slogged on with my normal work just waiting for the end of the day.
I arrived home and I started pulling out my litter files, scanning each list of chips and puppies to find one that started 142662…. Yes!! It belonged to the puppy we called Dublin, from my August 2005 litter! Who, my records revealed, was sold to a family in Santa Fe!
An answering machine picked up when I phoned them. I left what must have been a rambling message, explaining that I’d gotten a call from the Santa Fe pound, that they had a dog with a microchip that traced back to me, and hence to them, and would you please call me?
Less than an hour later, the phone rang, and it was Dublin’s owners.
The first thing she said was, “oh my goodness, yahoo for microchips!”
Dublin had actually been missing for 3 months! He had gone with them on a family visit over Thanksgiving, and he’d escaped the mother-in-law’s yard! They’d searched and searched, but had no luck finding him. The family had pretty much given up hope of ever seeing him again. So they were stunned – and thrilled – to hear that he’d finally turned up!
I gave them the phone number of the pound, along with Justin’s name and Dublin’s chip number so that they could prove they were his owners.
This afternoon, I called the Santa Fe pound, to ensure that everything had really worked out all right. Justin said that the family had been waiting when they opened this morning to claim their wayward hound. I thanked him again for his efforts on my puppy’s behalf. By his voice I could tell that he was as happy and relieved as I was that long-lost Dublin’s tale had a happy ending.
What better proof do we need as breeders that microchipping all of our puppies is the right thing to do?
In order to understand some of the very basic differences that led to the creation of Harriers and Beagles as hunting hounds, you must first know more about their intended quarry.
To most people, the terms “rabbits” and “hares” are interchangeable as they both conjure up images of cute, furry hopping critters with big ears. However, in actuality they are quite different. And it is these very differences that the two hound breeds were created to match.
While rabbits and hares are in the same order (lagomorpha) and family (leporidae); they differ in genus. Rabbits are sylvilagus whereas hares are in the lepus classification. In the US, wild rabbit varieties include the Eastern Cottontail, the New England Cottontail and the Swamp Rabbit. The most common hare varieties are Snowshoe Hares, and the Black-Tailed, White-Tailed and Antelope Jackrabbits.
Both families are very fertile and reproduce easily and often, as Mother Nature requires of successful prey species. Hares have young that are born fully furred with eyes open and ready to run. They do not have burrows below ground but rather have shallow depressions on top of the earth where they hunker down overnight. Hares tend to be bigger than rabbits, with larger ears, legs and rear feet. On the other hand, rabbits give birth to blind, naked, helpless young in cozy fur-lined nests dug underground.
Beagles were developed to hunt rabbits, as they are a smaller, slower hound. They pursue rabbits tirelessly, but not with excessive speed; when a rabbit is pushed too hard or fast it will bolt down a hole in a split second, thereby ending the chase. Harriers were developed to be a perfect match for hares, which are larger and faster and without any burrows for escape. Rabbits are overmatched with Harriers, and Beagles are usually too small to be very successful with the larger hares.
Hares and rabbits both tend to run in large circles when pursued, most covering several acres of their home territory. When hunted, they don’t bolt for miles as do foxes or coyotes, but rather they will circle back to near where they started. Through selective breeding, huntsmen created hounds that do the same thing when hunting – they circle back to the hunter in very large loops when searching for quarry. “Foxhounds cast forward, harriers (and beagles) cast back” is an old huntsman’s adage, which is definitely true. These characteristics were bred into the hounds to best match their quarry.
In the US, where most rabbit and hare hunting is done with a lone hunter, a shotgun and a couple hounds, this circling tendency is counted upon by the hunter to bag their bunny. When the hounds are on a rabbit or hare and are speaking loudly, the hunter knows that the quarry will eventually circle back near where it started, so they try and position themselves to get a clear shot of the rabbit when it comes running back with the hounds in hot pursuit.
So now you know why Harriers and Beagles are the sizes that they are!
Everyone has seen paintings and photos of the classic foxhunt, with riders in scarlet coats following hounds across a bucolic countryside. What you may not realize is that those eye-catching costumes are more than just decoration. To those who understand the language, there is meaning to be found in almost every detail. Let’s start at the top. The black riding cap provides some protection for the head should a rider have an “unscheduled dismount”. On the back at the bottom rim is a black grosgrain ribbon tied in a small bow. The tails of the bow left down and hanging indicates the rider is a professional (meaning paid) huntsman or whipperin. Everyone else has the bow ends glued in an upright position. An entire chapter could be written on the intricacies of the hunt coat alone, but I will skip over a lot and speak in broad generalizations.
The hunt staff and Masters wear scarlet coats; packs other than foxhounds normally wear other colors, but I won’t get into that here. Hunt members and visitors wear a black coat with black buttons. Hunt members may earn the right to wear brass buttons engraved with the hunt’s logo, and may eventually earn the privilege of “colors”. Awarding colors means that the member is entitled to wear the scarlet coat with brass buttons and the collar covered in the specific color scheme that particular hunt uses, ie navy collar with grey piping. A member wearing the colors indicates that the person is very knowledgeable and experienced, one that the Master and staff can count on to be level-headed and helpful, a person that visitors and new members can turn to for assistance when out hunting. The scarlet coats make them stand out as mobile “help desks” in the field, basically. Tradition has it that female members awarded colors do not wear the scarlet coat, but instead affix the colored collar to their black coat to indicate their status. However, some US hunts have modernized things, and allow women to wear scarlet.
The number of brass buttons provides another code to decipher. Four buttons indicates the huntsman and staff. Five buttons are reserved for Masters who hunt their own hounds. All others wear three buttons The white stock tie worn under the coat is about 6 feet long, tied in a very intricate manner and affixed with a brass pin that looks similar to a large diaper pin. The tie can be used in emergencies as a bandage for horse or rider, or a sling for an injured arm. The pin has meaning also. Pinned vertically it indicates professional hunt staff; all others pin theirs horizontally. The tall black leather boots reach to just below the knee. Brown tops that cover the first 4 inches of the boots are worn by Masters and hunt staff. All others wear unadorned black boots. Traditionally, women Masters and staff wear black patent leather tops rather than the brown, but as with the colors, this isn’t always the case anymore. So the next time you see a painting or photo of a hunt, check out the details to see if you can decipher what role each person plays in the hunt, just by interpreting their fancy outfit!
As a crisp winter’s day dawns bright and clear, the huntsman heads across the icy cobblestones to the stable to prepare his mount for the day’s hunt. Utilitarian coveralls, green rubber wellies and a wool cap keep him warm – in addition to keeping his white breeches, high-collared white hunt shirt, carefully tied stock tie and canary vest pristine and unblemished, for the moment at least.
With the tacking chores completed, the huntsman crosses the yard to the hound lodges. The hounds in the kennels hear the stable door open and shut, and give full throat in anticipation – howling, barking, baying and shrieking with absolute abandon. The cacophony 32 couple of Harriers raises on a hunting day is perfect testimony to their love of their work.
The ice on the cobbles has melted somewhat with the rising sun. Before he reaches the gate to the hound yard outside the hound kennels, the huntsman absently loops the 2 yards of leather thong connected to the well-worn stag-handled hunt crop he carries in his hand. With his other hand he pulls a piece of paper from the pocket of his coveralls and gives it a quick perusal.
After securely closing the hound yard gate behind him, the huntsman approaches the first of two kennel yards whose individual gate opens into the now-empty concrete paddock. The hounds are leaping, howling and barking in chaos behind their respective gates.
“ME! MEEEE! Pick MEEEEE!”, they each cry loudly! The huntsman lets the thong drop on his crop and with an expert flick of his wrist, pops the whip into the empty yard behind him with a decisive CRACK. “Enough of that”, he says gruffly, a small indulgent smile playing at the corners of his mouth. The hounds settle reluctantly, as they struggle mightily to curb their oh-so-obvious enthusiasm.
Coiling the thong back up again, the huntsman undoes the latch on the first hound yard, and holds it firmly, allowing it to open only a few inches. The hounds in this yard mill impatiently. Expectantly. All brightly shining eyes focused intently on their beloved master.
Glancing down at the paper in his hand, “Chancellor, Chancellor, Chancellor”, he says as he watches a dark hound push his way forward to the gate in rapid response to his name. Chancellor is slipped into the empty kennel yard behind him, the first of the lucky hounds on the huntsman’s list for that day. Chatter joins her brother next, and the list goes on: Lilac, Lily, Quiver, Dalesman, Hackney, Hero, Hopeful, Saracen, Saxon, Miller, Minstrel, Minty, Wishful, Preacher, Proctor, Promise . . . .
When all of the thirty-seven names on his list are drawn out of the two yards, the huntsman proudly surveys his handsome pack of 18 ½ couple hounds as they swarm excitedly around his wellies. “Right”, he says, “off we go!” He opens the yard gate and leads his pack to the large horse trailer parked on the cobblestones. The hounds scramble up the wide ramp, into the holding area fenced at the back of the horse box, and settle as a pile onto the thick bed of dry straw.
The huntsman leads his mount, now covered in a light blanket, out of the warm stable. The gelding confidently steps up the ramp and into the horse trailer, where he paws the floorboards and chuffs expectantly once clipped to end of his short tether. Two professional whipperins lead their horses into the box next; the ramp is raised and locked, and the huntsman slowly drives the trailer from the yard.
The twenty-seven hounds left behind in the kennel yards bay and howl their frustration and sorrow at not being chosen this morning. Another day will be theirs.
The hunt itself begins with the arrival of the hounds at the field and the exchange of obligatory social pleasantries. The Master gives a nod to the huntsman, whose coveralls and wellies have now been shed, revealing his dark green hunt coat, white breeches and mahogany-topped black boots. A black velvet hunt cap completes the uniform. He sits quietly mounted on his grey gelding, watching the hounds fan out around the gelding’s legs like a living, breathing Christmas tree skirt. With his hunt crop held out slightly to one side so that the thong dangles straight down to almost touch the grass, he grips the reins held firmly in the same hand. He then pulls out the short copper horn kept warm in his inner coat pocket with his free hand. Putting it firmly to the side of his pursed lips, he gives a brief trrrrppp trrrrppp trrrrppp! A slight nudge in the side moves his grey forward into a trot, with the hounds following collectedly around him.
They soon reach the dark frozen field where the hunt will begin. The rich earth is plowed up in thick deep furrows, clods the size of tumbled bread loaves still frosty and hard in the bright morning air. A different call on the huntsman’s horn signals the hounds to cast themselves across the field, and they spread out, covering the field at a good clip with their tails upright and wildly vibrating. They lope along with their heads held almost down to the ground between their galloping strides, noses searching for any trace of a hare.
Hunkered down tight in her set in the middle of the field, the hare scarcely breaths as the hounds stitch themselves back and forth all around her, so close but not quite. At last, she can stand it no longer and leaps from her warm depression. Her long hind limbs reach past her nose, grab the frozen ground and propel her forward at an incredible pace as she flies for the far hedgerow.
All the hound heads turn as one towards the fleeing hare, and the pack erupts in screaming pursuit. Hard muscles flow under gleaming coats as powerful loins contract and extend the strong spines into a flying gallop. Well-muscled haunches reach, grab and push the hounds rapidly forward while tight, tough feet find purchase on the uneven and punishingly frozen field. Deep chests draw great drafts of frosty air through wide-open nostrils and back out through loudly baying mouths.
The hare darts through the dense hedgerow, turns ninety-degrees and races along the hedges towards another farmer’s field. At a corner gate, she squeezes under the bottom slat and darts again across the frozen expanse. Hounds scream on the line, bullying their way through the prickly hedge and off along the row. Unwilling to be stopped by anything, they launch themselves at the gate and scrabble over it. One or two follow the hare’s example and push themselves sideways under at a low spot, scraping a little hair off on a splinter. The chase goes on, as the hounds know no limit and never quit.
And so it continues, over, through and around many fields and pastures, some not plowed but rather left fallow and covered in sharp wheat stubble. The original hare may tag-team another, or it may lose the hounds using the many tricks in its bag. Occasionally an unlucky one will meet its end in a brief instant with a snap from a hound’s strong jaws.
Hours later, the huntsman sits quietly atop his steaming and winded gelding. The long miles they’ve covered this day have tired both man and horse. Even though the hounds put in many more miles as they chased, raced and circled across the county, with eager grins, hanging tongues and panting sides they tell the huntsman as they gather around his gelding that they’re still willing to go more — if only he’d let them.
“Well done, hounds, well done”, he murmurs to them in quiet satisfaction. He reins his sweat-lathered grey towards the far trailer at a cool-down walk. Mud-spattered hounds fall in behind their master, content at last for having given their all that day.
The deep straw in the back of the horse trailer is mounded with a pile of sleeping hounds as the huntsman pulls out of the farmer’s yard. While driving slowly down the winding country lanes, he reflects back over the day’s excellent hunt. He glances down at the small gadget beside him on the truck bench, the new GPS that he wore for the first time that day. It shows that he and his gelding covered over fifteen miles all around the county in the almost four hours they were out. He knows that his hounds easily covered at least twice that distance, if not more. Multiplying that by twice weekly hunts, over the five months of the hunting season, the huntsman realizes with astonishment that his hounds cover some twelve hundred miles a season. He gives a low whistle in appreciation.
Although he had always known that for hare hunting, Harriers were without peer, actually doing the math finally clicked something home for the huntsman. The hounds he’d carefully bred, trained, loved and hunted for generations, had to be moderately and sturdily built in all ways, as his were, for a reason: their unmatched endurance and stamina. Add to that their sunny disposition and their absolute reluctance to ever quit hunting, and he couldn’t help but smile to himself. “Well done, hounds, well done.”
Many exhibitors have children as well as dogs, and their kids show the family’s dogs in Junior Showmanship when they are old enough. Sometimes the “dog show bug” skips generations, and you’ll see kids participating in shows with their grandparents.
At the Novice Junior levels, most children will probably be showing whatever dog and breed their family or grandparent happens to have.
However, if the dog show bug bites them thoroughly, and they move up from Novice to the higher skill levels of Juniors, some kids may decide they want to strike out on their own and find a breed and individual dog of their own choosing. Severing the grooming-smock strings if you will.
As breeders, this is where we can have a positive impact on the future generations as well as on our own breed. Over the years, my co-breeder and I have provided Champion Harriers for Juniors on numerous occasions.
In every instance, this was the first exposure that the Junior and their family had in terms of living with and showing a Harrier. We therefore take that responsibility very seriously, and will only place good quality examples with Juniors.
While Junior Showmanship is not supposed to be judged on the quality and merits of the dog but rather the handling skill of the child, we feel that it’s important that the kids have good breed representatives out there for all to see. After all, many Juniors will also want to compete in the breed ring with their dog. And with the scarcity of Harriers, there’s a good chance the Junior will be going to the Group often with their dog as a result.
Years ago, a terrier family in another state approached me about getting a Harrier for their daughter to show. We worked it out to meet at a show near them, and I brought class dogs as well as the finished Champion I had in mind for the Junior. Girl & hound hit it off right away, winning the breed both days. At the Sunday show, the new team earned a Group II placement, which happened to be the very first Group placement ever for the girl. (They went on to have many more group placements, ranking in the top 5 All-Breed that year.) To say they were thrilled is an understatement! As we were packing for the long drive home, the mom caught me to tell me how pleasantly surprised they were that I would “give them a good one”.
That remark caught me off-guard, as it implied that it’s common for breeders to give Juniors mediocre – or worse – dogs to show.
Why on earth would any breeder pawn off subpar dogs on kids? As everyone is always saying, we need to encourage younger generations to become involved in dog showing so that our sport continues and grows. And you do that by giving them quality dogs to be competitive at the breed & group level, in addition to the Juniors ring. This engages them in the sport, and in your breed, by having success in all three arenas.
Ashley Albro and Jaunty
My co-breeder and I go even further. We include in our co-ownership contracts with the families a means for us to financially encourage them to do more. We offer several hundred dollars towards expenses if the Junior wants to take their hound to the Harrier National Specialty, and also if they qualify for either Westminster or Eukanuba with their Harrier. We won’t pay for the whole bill, but we can certainly help them get there.
So the next time a Junior approaches you about a dog, please do the right thing and make a positive impact in our sport.
by Donna Smiley – reprinted from her submission to Show Sight
Before Charles Darwin so dramatically changed the world with his brilliant masterpiece, “On the Origin of Species”, his background in British field sports and hunting gave him insight into the whole concept of “evolution”.
You see, humans have been creating new animals through engineered evolution for millennia. Rather than nature selecting for survival traits through random mutations, man has been capitalizing on minute genetic variations within animals for as long as we have been domesticating them. That’s how the huge wild aurochs that once roamed Europe eventually became placid domestic cattle and mild-mannered dairy cows of today.
The British Isles went wild over the past few centuries creating and perfecting breeds of dogs to fill sometimes very tiny niches in working ability. These original sportsmen and huntsmen first looked at the specific game they were wanting to hunt as well as the terrain in which they would be hunted, and then crafted their dogs to best fit that niche.
Simply look at the breeds in the Sporting Group, where British breeds predominate, and you will see this creativity. Broad categories include Setters, Pointers, Flushers & Retrievers, with each group crafted to perform a very specific job in regards to hunting feathered game.
And within those broad groups, there is even more specialization . For example, Cocker Spaniels were created for hunting woodcock, and the larger English Springer Spaniels were crafted to “spring” gamebirds into the air to be either shot or taken with a falcon.
Similar specialization is also seen in the scent hounds. So to understand some of the very basic differences that led to the creation of Harriers and Beagles for hunting packs, you must first understand their intended quarry.
To the general public, “rabbits” and “hares” are interchangeable as they both bring to mind cute, furry hopping creatures with big ears.. In reality, they are quite different. And it is these very differences that Harriers and Beagles were created to match.
While rabbits and hares are in the same order (lagomorpha) and family (leporidae), they differ in genus. Hares are in the lepus classification with rabbits being in several different genera; sylvilagus and oryctolagus are the most common.
Both hares and rabbits are very fertile and reproduce easily and often, as is required of successful prey species. However, hares do not have burrows below ground but rather have shallow depressions on top of the ground where they hunker down overnight.. They therefore give birth to young that are born fully furred with eyes open and ready to run. Hares also tend to be bigger than rabbits, with larger ears, legs and rear feet. On the other hand, rabbits give birth to blind, naked, helpless babies in cozy fur-lined nests, burrows and tunnels dug underground.
Beagles were crafted to hunt rabbits, as they are a smaller, slower hound than the Harrier. They pursue rabbits tirelessly, but not with excessive speed, because when a rabbit is pushed too hard or fast it will bolt down a hole in a split second, thereby ending the chase.
Harriers were developed to be a perfect match for hares, which are larger and faster and without any burrows for escape. Rabbits are overmatched with Harriers, and Beagles are usually too small to be very successful with the larger, faster hares.
Hares and rabbits both tend to run in large circles when pursued, most covering several acres or more of their home territory. When hunted, they don’t bolt for miles as do foxes or coyotes, but rather they will eventually circle back to near where they started.
Through selective breeding, huntsmen created hounds that do the same thing when hunting – they circle back to the hunter in very large loops when searching for quarry. “Foxhounds cast forward, harriers (and beagles) cast back” is an old huntsman’s adage, which is definitely true. These characteristics, as well as other physical traits necessary for successful hunting careers, were bred into the hounds to best match their quarry.
To fully appreciate Harriers, you must further understand how they are bred and used in their homeland, the UK. There Harriers are only found in the few remaining handful of hunting packs currently registered with the Association of Masters of Harriers and Beagles (AMHB). Harriers are never kept as individual housepets and are never shown in Kennel Club shows. They are a working animal, bred for centuries for one purpose – the successful pursuit of the large European hare and/or the red fox.
The hunts are generally owned and managed by a committee, with one or more Masters governing the entire process and responsible to the members for providing good sport on the hunting days. They achieve this by tailoring their own individual pack to be the best suited to hunting their particular countryside and quarry.
In the southeast, where the countryside is mostly flat open fields and where the mounted riders prefer fast Thoroughbreds, the Harriers tend to be more up on leg, a bit lighter in bone and substance thereby making them faster in the open country. However, in the northern parts where the countryside is more hills and valleys, with rougher terrain and more rock walls, thickets and gorse, the riders choose slower draft horse/thoroughbred crosses, so the hounds consequently tend to be stocker with a bit more bone and substance to handle that terrain and hunting conditions.
If the pack hunts fox as well as hare, their season starts in early fall with “cub hunting” , which is an informal training period where the young untried hounds just brought back into the pack are worked with the older, experienced hounds in chasing and disbursing the yearling fox cubs from their mother’s home territory. The formal hunt season usually begins in earnest in November, and continues through early spring. During this time, hounds will be hunted two or three times a week.
This is where sound conformation, endurance, heart and hunting ability are put to the test. Depending on territory, most hunts will typically cover 20-30 miles in a day. Multiply that by two or three times a week for five months a year, and you’ll realize that Harriers are expected to cover 800 – 1,000+ miles each season. Now perhaps you can begin to understand why Harriers have to be constructed the way they are.
Moderation in all things, incredible stamina, rugged durability and unceasing determination are their hallmarks and their legacy. This is the working standard to which the huntsman breeds: if a Harrier hunts successfully for several years, it is bred; if it doesn’t hunt well or isn’t built well enough to hunt satisfactorily, it is culled. A tough but utilitarian standard to be sure.
These characteristics are what give us correct “Harrier type”.
Correct Harrier type is NOT one single look. It is a working standard that lays out the blueprint for correct type, and allows for a wide variety of styles within that framework.
Remember that each pack in the UK looks slightly different from the others because their own style of hound has been created to be best suited for their particular needs.
Yet each pack has the correct underlying foundation of a medium-sized solid hound that is moderate in all ways so as to have the durability and stamina necessary to cover a thousand miles a year for five, six or seven years .
Because Harriers in the US all trace back some way or another to the various packs in the UK, you will see a variety of styles in the show rings today. No one style is better than the others, as long as the individual hound still fits within the medium-sized, moderate, durable scent-hound type. Breeders, exhibitors and judges will have their own preferences in style, and the Harrier standard is written loosely enough to accommodate that.
The next time you see a large entry of Harriers at a show, take a few minutes to look at the various styles . And then look beyond the obvious differences to see the underlying similarities that are truly the correct measure of Harrier breed type.
I read with interest Bo’s description of unusual terms in standards….especially interested as the English Foxhound is one of my breeds. Beagles and Harriers the other. I stopped suddenly when Bo described the ‘Horn” of the English’s foot as toenails. That’s not what I understood!! I quickly dashed an email off to Bo, saying no no no, you have it all wrong…it’s the pads of the feet…the horny callus that develops in a working dog……that enables him to travel 40-50 miles without getting bloody feet!
Well….this started an 12 hour adventure of phone calls, googlemania, and research. Talking to fellow breeders – the comment was “of course it’s the pads…who cares about toenails in a working dog? “ I called a friend who is an huntsman of a pack of English Foxhounds – he’s never heard of the term “horn”, but agrees, the pad is utmost importance….he can recall times he’s hunted dogs that have pulled toenails and they run fine……a good hoof on a horse and pads on a dog for a huntsman.
So…here’s what the research shows – it’s a bit cloudy……but hopefully we can shed some light on the issue….
1867 – an author by the name of John Henry Walsh (aka Stonehenge) wrote a description of an English Foxhound and a point system. He wrote:
“The bone cannot be too large, and the feet in all cases should be round and catlike, with well–developed knuckles and strong horn, which last is of the greatest importance.”
Later in 1878 he wrote In the Modern Field Spaniel :
“The feet are round and cat-like, well clothed with hair between the toes, and the pads furnished with very thick horn.”
I think we can conclude by inference that he was referring to the same “horn” of foot in the field spaniel as the foxhound.
John Henry Walsh also wrote the basis for two other documents (maybe more)….the AKC Beagle and AKC Eng. Foxhound standard. It’s from his writings that I find that all Eng. Foxhound standards (Kennel Club, UKC, CKC, AKC, etc etc) seem to derive from.
Interesting to note though as well, the Kennel Club altered there standard in the 2000’s to modernize the language…they changed the words “horn” to “toenails”
The United Kennel club (admitted EFH in 1905, 4 years earlier than the AKC) also modernized their standard in 2009. The changed the terminology of “horn” to “pads”
To me, the icing on the cake is the quote, “ strong horn, which last is of the greatest importance.” I simply can not bring myself to understand how that could reference toenails. When I think of pads – it instantly makes sense to me.
Long ago, I was taught on a harrier and Eng. Foxhound, a good judge will lift the foot and inspect the pads…..nice soft pink pads means the specimen being examined is not a working dog and wouldn’t hold up on a hunt. A hard “horny” pad would mean that the dogs would endure keeping up and surpassing the horses.